Feline Cancer Resources - Overview

Phil and Holly

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Emotional support

Cancer Overview

    Cancer diagnosis
    Types of cancer
    Cancer FAQs
    Oral cancer
    GI cancer
    Mammary cancer
    Skin cancer
    Tumor Tidbits


Treatment Options

      Side effects
    Patient care


Medical Topics

    Pain management
    Blood tests
    Pilling a cat
    Compounding pharmacies
    Subcutaneous fluids
    First aid
    Caring for handicapped pets
    Veterinary supplies
    Pet hospice care


Nutritional Support



    Assisted feeding


Final Decision

    Definition of euthanasia
    Procedure of euthanasia
    Making the decision
    Grieving and support






Support Groups


Angels and Friends

  Holly the Lymphoma Trooper


Holly's Chemo Schedule

How cancer is diagnosed

Cytology and Histopathology - "The type of cells and bacteria present in a particular area of the body gives us important information about the nature of disease your pet may have. We commonly use cytology and histopathology to examine relevant areas and aid in the diagnosis process." Provides good, brief explanation on what cytology and histopathology are and how they are performed to help diagnose various diseases.

Cytology and the Diagnosis of Neoplasia - (PDF file) Maxey L. Wellman, DVM, PhD. From Oncology and Hematology, 20th Waltham/OSU Symposium, 1996, WalthamUSA.com. "Cytology refers to the microscopic evaluation of cells. Cytologic evaluation can be very useful in the clinical diagnosis of neoplasia (cancer). Samples for cytology can be collected from a wide variety of sites and many different tissues. Samples can be collected on an outpatient basis. Both sample collection and specimen preparation can be performed using inexpensive equipment that is readily available in most veterinary practices. In-house interpretations can be made the same day, and interpretations from reference laboratories frequently are available within 24 hours."

The Histopathlogy Laboratory in the Diagnosis of Neoplasia - (PDF file) Steven E. Weisbrode, VMD, PhD. From Oncology and Hematology, 20th Annual Waltham OSU Symposium, 1996.

Imaging Techniques in the Clinical Evaluation and Oncologic Disorders - (PDF file) David S. Biller, DVM. From Oncology and Hematology, 20th Waltham/OSU Symposium, 1996.

Diagnostics methods in cancer - Dr. Ron Lowe, BVSc MRCVS, PetCancerVet, Knaresborough, N Yorks, UK.

Cancer diagnosis - Animal Health Trust, UK.

Overview of Biopsy Principles and Surgical Oncology - World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

Biopsy - Brief explanation of biopsy. OncoLink Vet, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center.

Choosing the Right Biopsy for the Job - Continuing Education Page for veterinarians written by Brian Wilcock, D.V.M., Ph.D., HISTOVET Surgical Pathology.

What Can You Realistically Expect from Biopsies? - Continuing Education Page for veterinarians written by Brian Wilcock, D.V.M., Ph.D., HISTOVET Surgical Pathology.

BIOPSY BIOPSY BIOPSY - THE THREE TENETS OF ONCOLOGY - Biopsy Information Sheet, School of Veterinary Science University of Queensland Brisbane, Qld, 4072, Australia:

"The correct treatment and determination of prognosis for the cancer patient is highly dependent on knowing the type, severity and extent of disease. While therapeutic excisional biopsy has its indications, if it is performed without regard to tumour type or behaviour, then the optimal treatment course may be significantly compromised. It is therefore important for the clinician to be aware of the indications for, and the techniques available for yielding an accurate diagnosis.

Generally pretreatment biopsy is indicated if the tumour type or histological grade would alter the type or extent of treatment, or if the result would change the owners willingness to proceed with definitive treatment. Two instances where biopsy is contraindicated is when it wouldn't change the choice of therapy, such as solitary


tumour or splenic tumour, or when the biopsy procedure is as dangerous as the definitive surgery such as brain or spinal chord biopsy."

Animal Cancer Care Information - Animcal Cancer Care. School of Veterinary Science University of Queensland Brisbane, Qld, 4072, Australia

Client's Section - Explains the importance of getting a biopsy whenever a suspicious "lump" was found on pet's body, and the procedure. The Cancer Treatment Unit . 156 Cromwell Road . Whitstable . Kent CT5 1NA . England.

Cytology and Biopsies for the Practitioner: Part 1 - C. Guillermo Couto, DVM, ACVIM College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio, USA. WSAVA 2002 Congress Proceedings.

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Types of cancer

(Photos of human cancer) Recognizing Neoplastic Skin Lesions: A Photo Guide - Photos and descriptions of common human cancer. American Family Physician.

(Photos of cancer in domestic ferret) Pathology of the Domestic Ferret - Bruce H. Williams, DVM, Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Pathologists. Photos of some cutaneous tumors.

Cats - Oncology - PetPlace.com. The types of cancer covered are:

Basal Cell Tumors
Chondrosarcoma (Nasal and Paranasal Sinus)
Chondrosarcoma (Tumor of the Larynx (voice box) and Trachea)
Ear Tumors (Ear tumors are growths associated with the ear. The most common include squamous cell carcinoma, ceruminous gland adenoma or adenocarcinoma, sebaceous gland tumor and basal cell tumor.)
Eyelid Tumors (Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequent type of eyelid tumor in the cat. Lymphosarcoma and mast cell tumors (mastocytoma) are the next most common tumors that affect the feline eyelid.)
Fibrosarcoma (Bone)
Fibrosarcoma (Nasal and Paranasal Sinus)
Gastrointestinal Neoplasia
Hemangiosarcoma (Bone)

Hepatic Neoplasia (Liver Tumors)
Injection-Site Sarcoma (vaccine-associated sarcoma)
Lymphosarcoma (Lymphoma)
Malignant Melanoma
Mammary Gland Tumors
Mast Cell Tumors (Mastocytoma)
Metastatic Neoplasia (Cancer)
Ovarian Tumors
Pancreatic Exocrine Neoplasia (cancer of pancreas)
Primary Lung Tumors (Lung Cancer, Pulmonary Neoplasia)
Renal (Kidney) Neoplasia
Renal Lymphosarcoma (lymphosarcome/lymphoma of kidneys)
Skin Cancer (Epithelial tumors, mesenchymal tumors, round cell tumors - lymphosarcoma, mast cell tumors, histiocytomas, plasma cell tumors and transmissable venereal tumors - melanomas)
Skin Growth, Lump, Swelling or Mass
Uterine Tumors
What is Cancer?

Information on cancer of dogs and cats - Another detailed list of cancer in dogs and cats. VetMedCenter Medical Resources, Oncology. Cancer described include:

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Bone cancer (Osteosarcoma)
Basal Cell Tumors
Chondrosarcoma of the bones
Chondrosarcoma of the larynx (voice box) and trachea (Windpipe)
Chondrosarcoma of the mouth (Oral Chondrosarcoma)
Chondrosarcoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Fibrosarcoma of bones
Fibrosarcoma of the gums (gingivae)
Fibrosarcoma of nasal and paranasal sinuses
Cancer affecting the blood vessels of the bone (Hemangiosarcoma-Bone)
Cancer affecting the blood vessels of the liver and spleen (Hepatic and Splenic Hemangiosarcoma)
Cancer affecting the blood vessels of the skin (Hemangiosarcoma-Skin)
Benign liver cell cancer (Hepatocellular Adenoma)
Malignant liver cell cancer (Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
Benign tumor of the smooth muscle cells Leiomyoma
Malignant tumor of the smooth muscle cells Leiomyosarcoma
Cancer of the white blood cells and lymph nodes in dogs (Lymphosarcoma-Dogs)
Cancer of the white blood cells and lymph nodes in cats (Lymphosarcoma-Cats)
Milk gland cancer in the dog (Mammary Adenocarcinoma)
Milk gland cancer in the cat (Mammary Adenocarcinoma)
Cancer of mast cells (Mast Cell Tumors)
Melanoma of the skin
Melanoma of the oral cavity
Mouth cancer
Multiple myeloma
Myocardial tumors
Adrenal gland tumor (Pheochromocytoma)
Polycythemia vera
Skin cancer of the toe (Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Digit)
Skin cancer of the ear (Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Ear)
Skin cancer of the gums (Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Gingivae)
Cancer of the lung (Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung)
Cancer of the nasal planum (Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasal Planum)
Cancer of the nasal sinus (Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasal Sinus)
Skin cancer (Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin)
Cancer of the tongue (Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tongue)
Cancer of the tonsil (Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tonsil)
Cancer of the thymus gland (Thymoma)
Transitional Cell Carcinoma
Melanoma of the uvea in the cat
Melanoma of the uvea in the dog
Cancer sometimes associated with vaccination in cats (Vaccine-associated Sarcoma)

Tumors and Cancer in Cats - List of most common feline cancer. Types of cancer described include: Hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma, melanoma, nasal sarcoma, mesothelioma, nasal lymphoma, leukemia or lymphoma, phenochromocytomsas, adenocarcinoma, lymphosarcoma, abdominal mass, fatty cell tumor (lipoma). Vetinfo by Dr. Mike Richards, D.V.M.

Cancer & Tumors - Directory of cancer and tumors in cats. Max's House.

Understanding Cancer
Tumors of the Skin
Basel Cell Tumor
Ceruminous Gland Adenocarcinoma
Mast Cell Tumor
Sebaceous hyperplasia/adenoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (overview)
Feline Mammory Tumors
Soft Tissue Cancers
Fibrosarcoma (Soft-Tissue)
Infiltrative Lipomas
Synovial Cell Sarcoma
Leiomyoma and Leiomyosarcoma
Malignant Fibrous Histiocytomas
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (specific)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Skin
Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Tonsillar
Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Tongue
Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Nasal Planum
Vaccine-Associated Sarcomas
Tumors of the Bone
Parosteal (Juxtacortical) Osteosarcoma
Solitary Osteochondroma and Osteochondromatosis
Benign Skeletal Neoplasms and Non-neoplastic Tumor-like Lesions of the Bone

Histological Classification of tumours of domestic animals WHO/OMS 1974 - Animal Tumour Registry. Read the "Introduction" section first, then the specific type of tumor.

Tumours of the lung
Tumours of the thyroid gland
Tumours of nervous system
Tumours of the urinary bladder
Tumours of the testis
Tumours of the skin
Tumours of soft tissues
Tumours and dysplasiaa of the mammary gland
Tumours of the eye and adnexa
Tumours of upper alimentary tract
Tumours of lower alimentary tract
Tumours of liver and biliary system
Tumours of the pancreas
Tumours of the ovary
Tumours of female genital tract
Tumours of the adrenal gland and paraganglia
Tumours of the kidney
Tumours of the prostate and penis
Tumours of the nasal cavity
Tumours of bones and joints

Ten Best Kept Secrets for Treating Cats with Cancer - Dr. Gregory Ogilvie. Proceedings, WSAVA 2002. Cancer types discussed: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, oral squamous cell carcinoma, hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, round cell (discrete cell) tumors, mammary adenocarcinoma, vaccine associated sarcoma.

Mast Cell Tumors: Hot New Diagnostics and Treatment! - Dr. Gregory Ogilvie, Proceedings, WSAVA 2002.

WSAVA 2002 Oncology - List of scientific presentations of oncology at WSAVA 2002.

Types of Cancer - (for humans) OncoLink, Abramson Cancer Center of University of Pennsylvania.

Animal Cancer - A brief overview of animal cancer. American Veterinary Medical Association.

Cancer in Dogs and Cats - Overview of cancer in dogs and cats at Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine.

Diseases of the Feline Digit - Discusses various tumors that occur in feline digits (legs). Tumor types include Eosinophilic Collagenolytic Granuloma, Digital Soft Tissue Sarcoma (Fibrosarcoma, Giant Cell Tumor of Soft Tissue) , Bronchial Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to Digit, and Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Written by Dr. Brian Wilcock. HISTOVET Surgival Pathology.

Educational Library for Pet Owners, Cancer Articles - Vet Surgery Central Inc. The following tumors are discussed (with some photos of the tumors; some graphic):

Anal sac tumors
Kidney tumors
Soft tissue sarcomas
Adrenal tumors in ferrets
Bone cancer
Thyroid tumors in cats
Mammary tumors
Mast cell tumors
Lung cancer
Mouth cancer (oral tumors)
Rectal and colonic tumors
Tumors of the spleen
Limb sparing surgery for bone tumors

Why is Cancer Killing Our Pets? - by Deborah Straw Conscious Choice, November 2000.

Cancer is a treatable disease - All Care Animal Referral Center (Fountain Valley, CA).

Oncology / Radiation Therapy - List of articles on oncology and radiation therapy by Veterinary Referral Center of Colorado's information library.

Lectures on small animal cancer - LSU School of Veterinary Medicine

Handouts - LSU School of Veterinary Medicine

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FAQs on animal cancer

OncoSite Frequently Asked Questions - An educational and resource site for animal oncology. Easy-to-understand explanation about animal oncology. Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine. The questions answered include:

- What are the effects of cancer on animals?
- What is the incidence of cancer in our pets?
- What do we know about the causes of cancer in our animals?
- Can my dog's/cat's cancer be spread to me or my other pets?
- What treatments are available for animals with cancer?
- How is cancer diagnosed?
- What are the side effects of radiation therapy?
- What about chemotherapy?
- What are the side effects of chemotherapeutic treatment?
- How is chemotherapy given?
- What questions should I ask my veterinarian or veterinary oncologist before my pet begins chemotherapy?
- What is my pet's prognosis?

Ask the Experts (Cancer FAQ) - Most Recently Answered Questions. OncoLink Vet, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center.

Ask the Experts (Cancer FAQ Archive) - Previously Answered Questions. OncoLink Vet, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center.

NetVet Oncology

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Oral cancer

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and Environmental/Lifestyle Risk Factors

Phil, who had oral SCC, was never exposed to tobacco smoke and he ate homemade diet more than half of his life. However, the following studies indicate that the environmental and lifestyle risk factors may play a role in developing oral SCC in pet cats. Something to think about...

"Environmental and lifestyle risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma in domestic cats." Bertone ER, Snyder LA, Moore AS. J Vet Intern Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;17(4):557-62.
— "Results of this study suggest that flea control products, diet, and perhaps environmental tobacco smoke might be associated with risk of oral SCC and indicate that further investigation into these relationships is warranted."

"p53 expression and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in feline oral squamous cell carcinoma." Snyder LA, Bertone ER, Jakowski RM, Dooner MS, Jennings-Ritchie J, Moore AS. Vet Pathol. 2004 May;41(3):209-14.
— "These results provide additional support for a relationship between oral SCC development and exposure to household ETS and may implicate p53 as a potential site for carcinogen-related mutation in this tumor."

Photos of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous Cell Carcinoma - (WARNING - graphic) Photos of a ferret with squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible (lower jaw). (Luna had the same cancer.)

Articles on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and other oral cancer

Gemcitabine as a radiosensitizer for nonresectable feline oral squamous cell carcinoma - J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2003 Sep-Oct;39(5):463-7. Jones PD, de Lorimier LP, Kitchell BE, Losonsky JM. Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Illinois, 1008 West Hazelwood Drive, Urbana, Illinois 61802, USA. PubMed abstract.

A phase II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with advanced, persistent, or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix - Human study of gemcitabie and cisplatin on squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. PubMed abstract.

Treatment of advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck with alternating chemotherapy and radiotherapy - The New England Journal of Medicine. Abstract.

Hypofractionated radiation therapy of oral melanoma in five cats - PubMed abstract.

Oral Feline Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Clinical Trials. Penn Veterinary Medicine, Department of Clinical Studies. Randomized, prospective clinical study consisting of 40 cats with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of oral SCC treated with mitoxantrone chemotherapy in combination with piroxicam (in progress).

Feline Oral Neoplasia - P. Bergman and D. T. Carmichael The Animal Medical Center, New York, New York, USA. (In: Recent Advances in Small Animal Dentistry, Carmichael D.T. (Ed.) International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca NY (www.ivis.org), 2003; A0710.0203)
"Unfortunately, the vast majority of neoplasms found in the mouths of cats are malignant and carry a poor prognosis. Over 20 different types of cancer have been reported to occur in the oral cavity of felines, although only a few are observed commonly [1]. Among the more common feline oral neoplasms are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), fibrosarcoma, lymphoma, and malignant melanoma. In fact, SCC alone accounts for about 70% of all feline oral tumors. It is of extreme importance to identify the tumor type and commence treatment early in the course of disease if a favorable treatment outcome is to be achieved. In the majority of cases, however, a clinical cure is not possible. Some oral tumors in cats are obvious, while others may present more subtly. Neoplasia must be suspected in all lesions of the feline oral cavity where an obvious cause is not clear. The first step towards treatment of feline oral neoplasia is establishing a correct diagnosis based on a biopsy."

Oral Neoplasia - Dr. Brian Wilcock (HISTOVET Surgical Pathology). Includes data on the recurrence, one-year survival rate, and median survival months after partial mandibulectomy or maxillectomy of various forms of oral tumors in dogs and cats. The types of cancer discussed are squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and fibrosarcoma.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma (jaw, tongue, gum) - Long Beach Animal Hospital.

Recognizing Oral Disease - Steven Holmstrom, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

Oral Tumors and Their Biology - Stephen Withrow, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

Odontogenic Tumours - Frank Verstraete, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

Adjunctive Treatment of Oral Tumors - Stephen Withrow, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

FAQs: Oral Masses/Ulcers - VeterinaryPartner.com.

Feline Squamous Cell Carcinoma -- Personal Accounts - Oral SCC, diaries of treatment, symptoms, links, biopsy, oncologist search, syringe feeding, daily care, pet loss support, medical needs, Q&A group. Angel Snoop's site.

Oral Proliferative Lesions in Dogs And Cats - Leen Verhaert, Belgium. Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

What is the prognosis for oral cancer in a cat? - VetCentric article. Squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, epulis (dental tumor), and epulides.

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Gastrointestinal cancer

Update on Canine and Feline Gastrointestinal Neoplasia - Stanley Marks, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

Feline GI Pearls - Margie Scherk, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

Tumors of the Spleen in Cats and Dogs - VetCentric article.


Canine and Feline Lymphoma: Review of Prognostic Factors and Treatment Options - World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

Lymphoma: Cancer of the White Blood Cells - Overview of lymphoma in dogs and cats. UC Davis Center for Companion Animal Health CCAH Update, Spring 1999. Topics includes: The Disease in Dogs, The Disease in Cats, Therapy and Remission, and What to Expect.

What is lymphosarcoma? - VetCentric.com article on lymphosarcoma (a.k.a., lymphoma) in dogs.

Lymphoma, Lymphosarcoma - Overview of lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) in dogs and cats. Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine.

Lymphosarcoma in cats - Another overview of lymphosarcoma in cats. VetMedCenter.com.

Lymphoma in Dogs and Cats - Pet Health Information Sheet, The Animal Medical Center. "Lymphoma, also known as malignant lymphoma, lymphosarcoma, lymphatic cancer, and LSA, is considered systemic cancer and is the most common malignant tumor other than skin cancer in dogs and cats. The incidence of lymphoma is higher in cats than in dogs, primarily because of the feline leukemia virus. Fortunately, the disease can be treated successfully by chemotherapy." Topics: Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis.

Hematopoietic Neoplasia Companion Animal Medicine - Lecture slides on lymphoma in dogs and cats. (Text version and PowerPoint slides) Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine.

Lymphoma in Cats - VIN.com. "Lymphoma accounts for one third of all cancers developed by cats. It is best classified by the anatomical areas most commonly affected: Mediastinal (most common form 20 years ago), Intestinal (most common form now), Renal, Ocular (eye), Nasal."

"* As with dogs, chemotherapy protocols are associated with minimal side effects. Many protocols have been described for the feline lymphoma patient.

- In one study 7 cats were treated with the COP protocol (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone). Of these 7 cats, 6 achieved remission with a median duration of remission lasted 19 weeks. The grade of intestinal lymphoma was not considered.
- In one study, 14 cats were treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and methotrexate. Median survival time was 12 weeks. The grade of the intestinal lymphoma was not considered.
- In another study, 132 cats with lymphoma were treated with COP plus doxorubicin, L-asparaginase, and methotrexate (the "CHOP-like" protocol). Of this group 125 cats had intestinal lymphoma. Out of the total 132 cats, 67% achieved remission with a 21-week disease-free interval. Another study using the same protocol on 21 cats with intestinal lymphoma, only 38% achieved remission but these cats had disease-free interval of 40 weeks.
- In another study, 25 cats with intestinal lymphoma, 25 of which had high-grade lymphoma, were treated with COP. Those who achieved complete remission had a 30-week disease-free interval. The overall median survival when all 25 cats were considered was only 7 weeks.
- Another study looked at 11 cats with high-grade intestinal lymphoma treated with COP plus doxorubicin and L-asparaginase. Only 18% achieved complete remission. Median survival was only 11 weeks.
- As for low-grade intestinal lymphoma, a study of 50 cats included 36 treated with prednisone and chlorambucil. Here, 69% achieved complete remission for a median duration of 20.5 months."

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Mammary cancer

Prognostic Factors for Canine and Feline Mammary Cancer - World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001. "Approximately 85% of feline mammary neoplasms are histologically malignant. Cancer may arise from either glandular or ductal tissue and tumors are categorized as either solid (35%), tubular (50%), or papillary (15%). Fifty percent of cats may have multiple glands develop tumors simultaneously. Local extension may be significant with rapid spread to regional lymph nodes and a relatively high rate of distant metastasis if not detected and treated early." Topics discussed: Incidence, Etiology, Clinical Behavior, Diagnosis and Staging, Treatment, and Prognosis.

Mammary Gland Tumors in Dogs and Cats - Overview of mammary cancer in dogs and cats. Veterinary Referral Center of Colorado.

Mammary Gland Tumors - Overview. PetPlace.com.

Mammary Gland Tumors in Cats and Dogs - Pet Health Information Sheet, The Animal Medical Center. "Mammary gland tumor(s) is common in both cats and dogs. The disease tends to develop in middle-aged to older animals. About 50% of all breast tumors in dogs are malignant (cancerous), while the other 50% are benign (not cancerous). In cats, most (85 to 90%) mammary tumors are cancerous. Unlike people, dogs and cats have four to five mammary glands on each side, extending along their entire underside." Topics: Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis.

Mammary Gland Tumors in Cats - For cat owners. Explains what mammary gland tumors in cats are, what causes them, signs, how they are diagnosed and treated, and what the prognosis is. VetMedCenter.com.

Mammary Gland Tumors--Cats - Veterinarian's version of the above article. Basics - Diagnosis - Treatment - Medications - Follow-Up - Miscellaneous. 5 minute veterinary consult. VetMedCenter.com.

Mammary Tumors in Dogs and Cats: What Do I Tell the Owner? - Dr. Brian Wilcock, HISTOVET Surgical Pathology.

Understanding Your Pathology Report - For human breast cancer patient. Explains various items that appear in a pathology report of human breat cancer biopsy.

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Skin cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma - Long Beach Animal Hospital

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin - For pet owners. Definition of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. VetMedCenter.com.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Skin - Veterinarian's version of the above article. VetMedCenter.com.

Basal Cell Tumor (A Skin Tumor) - For pet owners. Definition of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. VetMedCenter.com.

Basal Cell Tumor - Veterinarian's version of the above article. VetMedCenter.com.

Causes of Solid-Appearing Lumps & Bumps on the Skin - "Cats can develop small bumps (papules) or larger lumps (nodules) on their skin. The term 'tumor' means an abnormal growth or swelling, and is often used to designate cancer. Often the word 'lump' also brings the word 'cancer' to mind. There are, however, many other causes of lumps and bumps." A table of Condition, Description, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment of various lumps and bumps seen on the skin of cats. PetEducation.com.

Lumps and Bumps - on dogs, but also applies to cats. Article by Dr. Dunn appeared in the May, 2002, issue of Dog World Magazine.

VAS (vaccine-assosiated sarcoma), injection-site sarcoma

Injection-site sarcoma - PetPlace.com

Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force - American Veterinary Medical Association.

Vaccines and Sarcomas: A Concern for Cat Owners - Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force page for cat owners.

Vaccine Associated Fibrosarcoma - Wendy Brook, DVM, DipABVP. Vin.com.

Chemotherapy and Feline Sarcomas? - Vaccine-assosiated sarcomas in cats (VAS; also known as injection-site sarcomas) and treatment options. Gulf Coast Veterianary Specialists Tumor Tidbit.

Vaccine-Associated Sarcomas in the Cat - World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

Feline Vaccination Protocols - World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

Chemotherapy and VAS - Dr. Kevin Hahn's Tumor Tidbit.

Feline Postvaccinal Sarcoma: A 2002 Update - Dr. Brian Wilcock (HISTOVET Surgical Pathology). He analyzes VAS from histological standpoint. Includes Canadian data of VAS.

Microchip injection site tumors:

List of studies on tumors occuring at microchip injection site at PubMed.

Fibrosarcoma with typical features of postinjection sarcoma at site of microchip implant in a dog: histologic and immunohistochemical study - Vascellari M, Melchiotti E, Mutinelli F.

Tumors in long-term rat studies associated with microchip animal identification devices - Elcock LE, Stuart BP, Wahle BS, Hoss HE, Crabb K, Millard DM, Mueller RE, Hastings TF, Lake SG.

A letter from an owner of a dog who developed fibrosarcoma at the microchip injection site - (Read in Word document or view as HTML)

Cancer of central nervous system, brain

Lymphoma of the Central-Nervous-System - A Retrospective Study of 18 Cats - M Noonan, KL Kline, K Meleo Vet Internal Med Clin,Cincinnati,OH 00000 USA Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 1997, 19, 4, 497. "The clinical presentation, neurologic findings, and pathology of lymphoma of the central nervous system - the most common spinal cord neoplasm in cats - are revisited by reviewing the medical records of 18 cats with this important neoplastic disease."

Diagnosis and Treatment of Brain Tumors - Richard A. LeCouteur, BVSc, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM (Neurology), DECVN University of California Davis, California, USA. WSAVA 2002 Congress Proceedings. "Primary brain tumors appear to be relatively uncommon in most domestic species, however this is not the case in dogs and cats. Although a broad spectrum of primary tumor types occurs in dogs, meningiomas and gliomas appear to occur most frequently. Most primary brain tumors are solitary, but multiple primary brain tumors have been reported. Secondary or metastatic tumors appear to be less common and may result from local extension (e.g., nasal adenocarcinoma) or metastases from primary tumors elsewhere. Skull tumors may affect the brain by local extension."

Lung cancer and cancer of respiratory system

Prognosis factors for survival in cats after removal of a primary lung tumor: 21 cases (1979-1994). Hahn KA, McEntee MF. Department of Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37901-1071, USA. Vet Surg 1998 Jul-Aug;27(4):307-11.

Endogenous lipid (cholesterol) pneumonia associated with bronchogenic carcinoma in a cat. Jerram RM, Guyer CL, Braniecki A, Read WK, Hobson HP. Department of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843-4474, USA.

Metastatic digital carcinoma in the cat: a retrospective study of 36 cats (1992-1998). Gottfried SD, Popovitch CA, Goldschmidt MH, Schelling C. Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Center, Langhorne, Pennsylvania 19047, USA.

Classification of lung carcinomas in the dog and cat. Moulton JE, von Tscharner C, Schneider R. Vet Pathol 1981 Jul;18(4):513-28.

Probable hypercalcemia of malignancy in a cat with bronchogenic adenocarcinoma. Anderson TE, Legendre AM, McEntee MM. Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37901-1071, USA. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2000 Jan-Feb;36(1):52-5.

Multiple Myeloma, Plasma Cell Myeloma, Plasmacytoma

Muliple Myeloma

Two of four defining features must be present for diagnosis--monoclonal gammopathy (caused by increased production of immunoglobulins), bone marrow invasion by plasma cells, Bence Jones proteinuria, and lytic (destroyed) bone lesions (VetMedCenter). The tumor cells are primarily immature plasma cells, which usually secrete immunoglobulin. This results in hyperglobulinemia (increase in globulin level).

Celeste was found to have monoclonal gammopathy by serum protein electrophoresis test. The internal medicine specialist recommends Bence-Jones protein test next before doing bone marrow biopsy. (Read the rest at Celeste's page.)

Multiple Myeloma - VetMedCenter article. 5 minute veterinary consult.

Multiple Myeloma - VetMedCenter article. Information for owners.

Deep Down in the Bone Marrow - July 23, 2001 Written by: Celeste A. Clements, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM. VetCentric.

Problem Solving Case Example - "A 12-year-old, neutered male domestic shorthair cat is presented for evaluation of lethargy and partial inappetence for 3 days. This cat lives exclusively indoors with 7 other cats that currently are healthy. Routine vaccinations were administered within the last 6 months. On physical examination the cat is depressed and slightly dehydrated with rectal temperatureof 102.2 F, pulse of 240/min, and respiratory rate of 30 breaths/min. Breath sounds are normal, mucous membranes are pink, and capillary refill time is 2 seconds. Ophthalmic examination reveals tortuous retinal vessels in both eyes and retinal hemorrhages." Small Animal Problem Solving, Virginia Tech.

Multiple Myeloma in Cats: Variable Presentation with Different Immunoglobulin Isotypes in Two Cats - D. Bienzle, D. C. Silverstein and K. Chaffin. Veterinary Pathology 37:364-369 (2000).
Abstract - Multiple myeloma was diagnosed in two cats with monoclonal hyperglobulinemia, proteinuria, and plasma cell proliferations in bone marrow. An immunoglobulin G-producing myeloma occurred in the vertebral bone marrow of one cat, and twice responded to surgical reduction followed by a combination of local irradiation and chemotherapy. The cat's survival time was approximately 2 years. The other myeloma in a cat that presented with hypercalcemia and renal insufficieny involved visceral organs and produced a biclonal peak due to immunoglobulin A dimer formation on serum electrophoresis. This cat's tumor did not respond to chemotherapy.

Current Chemotherapy in Oncology - (scroll down to "Myeloma") Susan M. Cotter DVM, DACVM (Oncology and Internal Medicine) Tufts University, School of Veterinary Medicine North Grafton, MA.

Treatment of Bone Tumors - (Last Updated: 1-Jan-1985) K. A. Jeglum. In: Textbook of Small Animal Orthopaedics, Newton C.D. and Nunamaker D.M. (Eds.) Ithaca: International Veterinary Information Service, 1985; B0080.0685.

Malignant Bone Tumors in the Dog - (Last Updated: 1-Jan-1985) M. H. Goldschmidt and D. E. Thrall. In: Textbook of Small Animal Orthopaedics, Newton C.D. and Nunamaker D.M. (Eds.) Ithaca: International Veterinary Information Service, 1985; B0077.0685.

Hyperglobulinemia - Veterinary Clinical Chemistry. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine.

Immunoglobulin-producing tumours in dogs and cats - Breuer W, Colbatzky F, Platz S, Hermanns W. Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Munich, F.R.G. J Comp Pathol. 1993 Oct;109(3):203-16. (PubMed)

Monoclonal gammopathies - Merck Veterinary Manual.

Total Protein Electrophoresis - "This procedure separates the proteins in serum and body fluids (e.g. peritoneal fluid, urine) into the component immunoglobulins. Electrophoresis is indicated for determination of the underlying nature of a hyperglobulinemia or if multiple myeloma is suspected in a patient." College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University.

Lymphosarcoma In Cats (Differential diagnosis) - "Monoclonal gammopathy has been described in cats with lymphosarcoma and is primarily because of the increased production of IgG from a clone of immunoglobulin producing cells. Clinical signs are primarily associated with hyperviscosity resulting in ophthalmic, neurologic, hematologic, and renal abnormalities. Clinical signs in cats with monoclonal gammopathy are nonspecific and include anorexia and lethargy. Protein electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis help establish a diagnosis after the recognition of an abnormally elevated total serum protein concentration. Differentials for a monoclonal gammopathy in a cat include multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, and benign hyperglobulinemia."

Hemolymphatic Disease - (PowerPoint presentation) Includes chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and hemangiosarcoma. Dr. Susan Eddlestone. Oklahoma State University.

Immunoglobulin A myeloma in a cat with pleural effusion and serum hyperviscosity. Hawkins EC, Feldman BF, Blanchard PC. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1986 Apr 15;188(8):876-8. "Immunoglobulin A myeloma, serum hyperviscosity, and septic pleuritis were diagnosed in a cat with pleural and peritoneal effusions. Serum hyperviscosity was determined by use of a WBC pipette, and clinical manifestations included retinopathy and cardiac changes. The presence of Salmonella typhimurium in the pleural fluid may have resulted from increased susceptibility to infection. Postmortem examination revealed plasma cell infiltration of the pleura, mesenteric lymph nodes, and the serosa of the intestine, liver, and spleen. This case represents an unusual form of myeloma in the cat."

MEDICAL ONCOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW Multiple Myeloma and Other Plasma-Cell Dyscrasias - (Human information) Vali Papadimitrakopoulou, MD, Donna M. Weber, MD; M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Multiple Myeloma and Plasmacytoma - (Human information) Union Hospital. "When myeloma cells collect in only one bone and form a single mass, or tumor, it is called a plasmacytoma. In most cases, however, according to NCI, the myeloma cells collect in many bones, forming many tumors and causing other problems. When this happens, the disease is called multiple myeloma."

"Idiopathic" Bence Jones proteinuria: long-term follow-up in seven patients - (Human information) RA Kyle, and PR Greipp. New England Journal of Medicine.

Multiple Myeloma - (Human information) Regis Bataille, M.D., Ph.D., and Jean-Luc Harousseau, M.D. New England Journal of Medicine.

Types of myeloma - (Human information) Cancer Research UK.

Lung cancer

Diagnosing Primary Lung Tumors in Cats - Veterinary Referral Center of Colorado. Includes some radiographs (X-rays) of lung tumors. Clinical signs, appearances on radiographs, diagnosis, surgical removal of mass, chemotherapy, and possible metastasis to digits.

Primary Lung Tumors - Merck Veterinary Manual.

Lung tumors - Vet Surgery Central. Written by Dr. Daniel A. Degner, Board-certified Veterinary Surgeon (DACVS).

Primary Lung Tumors in Dogs (Lung Cancer, Pulmonary Neoplasia) - PetPlace.

Primary Lung Tumors in Cats (Lung Cancer, Pulmonary Neoplasia) - PetPlace.

Dyspnea in Cats - Trouble Breathing in Cats - PetPlace Veterinarians.

PULMONARY PATTERNS ("LUNG PATTERNS") - DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY, Dr. Patricia Rose. Collections of throacic radiographs (X-rays).

Other cancer

Lymphangiosarcoma in Cats - Ann Strieby; Paula Krimer, DVM, DVSc; and Kenneth Latimer DVM, PhD. University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology.

Malignant Effusions - Gulf Coast Veterinary Specialists.


Cancer Glossary - Medicine Online

Definitions and Abbreviations of Veterinary Terms - Washington State University Veterinary Medicine.

Veterinary Abbreviations and Acronyms - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Veterinary Medicine Library.

The On-line Medical Dictionary - CancerWeb. Human cancer terminology.

Glossary of Veterinary Terms - Bernese Mountain Dog Club of America.

Encyclopedia of Cancer - Human information. enotes.com.

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